The term penicillin comes from english penicillin, which in turn derives from Latin Penicillium notatum. This Latin concept names the mold from whose crops penicillin is extracted, which is a antibiotic substance used to combat diseases caused by different microorganisms.
Penicillins usually derive from acid 6-aminopenicillanic and differ from each other according to the substitution made in the side chain of the amino group. In general, penicillins are antibiotics that belong to the group of beta lactams .
The first antibiotic that was used massively in medicine was the penicillin G , also known as bencipenicillin . This antibiotic was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 who next to Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey , was responsible for mass production.
Penicillins are considered as the least toxic antibiotics, although they can produce allergy . Therefore, before applying penicillin, the doctor should always consult the patient if he has an allergy.
Among the most common side effects that the aforementioned penicillin can produce in patients are headaches, diarrhea, vaginal discharge as well as pains in the mouth and tongue that may be accompanied in addition to the appearance of a series of white spots in said oral organ.
However, there is a possibility that, given the application of penicillin in a patient, it has another series of adverse effects that, although not as frequent, can also take place. Among them would be fever, joint pain, rashes, faster breathing than usual, inflammation in the area of the face or the skin becomes redder and begins to flake.
In the same way, there are other series of consequences or reactions to penicillin that are absolutely rare and uncommon but have also appeared in some cases. Among those should be noted, for example, seizures, vomiting, yellowing of the skin and eyes, anxiety, depression, bleeding, seeing or hearing elements that do not exist and even confusion.
Typically, given the aforementioned types of adverse effects that penicillin has, it is not necessary for the doctor to act because they will disappear by themselves as the patient's body adapts to said medication. However, if those are very annoying or remain patent, it is vital that the healthcare professional take measures to end them.
Different types of penicillins fulfill different functions. The benzylpenicillin allows to fight bacteria such as streptococci , the staphylococci , the meningococci and the gonococci . This antibiotic is administered parenterally as it is sensitive to stomach acid.
The ampicillin Instead, it can be given orally to act against bacteria such as salmonella , the shigella and the haemophilus .
Penicillin should not be administered with certain antibiotics, such as neomycin and the chloramphenicol , since, in this way, effectiveness is reduced. On the other hand, penicillin decreases the effects of birth control pills .