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It is called traffic to the displacement of human beings, means of transport or products by some kind of route or path. aerial , on the other hand, is that linked to the air (the gaseous layers that surround the planet Earth).

He air traffic , therefore, is composed of rules , the systems and the processes which, regulated by various international organizations, enable the development of flights that allow travel from one destination to another worldwide.

Just as there are traffic rules and signs that regulate the traffic of cars, motorcycles, vans, trucks and other vehicles on the roads (routes), air traffic is also subject to different rules . While control of each road depends on the city or the country in which it is located, air traffic is organized internationally, given its particular characteristics.

Keep in mind that every day more than 18,000 aircraft they leave and arrive at one of the more than 40,000 airports that exist in the world . The efficient management of these flights is essential to avoid accidents and to ensure that airplanes can take off and land at the scheduled times.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (whose acronym is ICAO ) is the body of the United Nations (Un ) that manages the development of civil aviation by establishing regulations and standards. The call Air traffic control It is a service shared by all the countries that make up the ICAO to control air traffic.

For guarantee order, efficiency and safety Of the thousands of flights that are carried out daily, the air traffic controller has the option to give specific orders to the pilots, or to advise them in situations that contemplate several alternatives, all this taking into account the airspace class and flight It should be noted that, anyway, the highest authority of the driving of an aircraft is none other than the pilot himself , and that is why he has the last word in the middle of an emergency, provided that his decisions They seem the most appropriate for the safety of all.

The concept air space it refers to the portion of atmosphere that each country regulates, both on water and on land, and four different types are recognized: special use; checked; not controlled; others. The definition of each airspace is linked to the movement of aircraft that takes place in their area, at the level of security that is required and to the objective of the operations that are carried out.

The airspace is divided into flight information regions , and the acronym used for its representation is FIR . Each country has a area of ​​responsibility, which contemplates the regions of which it must take charge. For international waters (also called high seas, are those areas of the ocean that are not exclusive to any State) have their own service information , some of the areas exceed the limits of territorial waters.

One of the most important positions within the area of ​​air traffic is that of controller , and there are different types of roles under this same denomination, such as the following:

* of authorizations : is responsible for authorizing flight plans to ships that are about to leave;
* of Earth : must guide the aircraft overland, throughout all tracks , doors and platforms of the airport through which they must travel;
* tower : its function includes the control of the weather and any phenomenon that may affect the landing or takeoff of an aircraft, such as work taking place on the runway or flocks of birds that may interfere with a particular route.

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