The etymology of criminalistics refers to the German word kriminalistik. The concept is used to refer to the discipline consisting of analyze the signs of a crime in order to determine as much data as possible about how the incident occurred.
Criminalistics, therefore, provides information of interest to the authorities that have the function of administering Justice . By specifying the mechanics of crime by studying multiple factors, it is often possible to discover who your responsable .
What criminalistics does is reconstruct what happened by objective evidence which must then be interpreted. It usually seeks to find the evidence left by the culprit, either in the victim or at the scene of the crime . The fingerprint , the hematology and the forensic Medicine They are some of the specialties that are part of the criminal.
Let's look at these three concepts in detail to better understand the scope of criminalistics. First of all we have the fingerprint , a science that allows you to study, classify, archive and recover the fingerprints found in the distal phalanges of human fingers, for research purposes generally and applied almost all over the world for a long time.
Dactiloscopia is a branch of the lofoscopy , the science that focuses on the study of designs of the surface of the skin of the areas dedicated to locomotion, the perception of touch and prone function, both of the human being and of the rest of the primates and some other mammals, such as the common squirrel.
Going back to fingerprint, it's about one of the best known specialties of crime , even outside the professional and technical field, largely because of its representation in works of fiction of all kinds. With the arrival of systems informatics that allow to store and compare millions of fingerprints automatically, the importance of this science increased as it began to offer more accurate results and in a much less time.
The hematology It is a specialty of internal medicine dedicated to treating patients with blood diseases. The field of hematology also includes the diagnosis and study of blood, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow, whether in sick or healthy people.
On the other hand is the forensic Medicine , the third pillar of crime, given that it is the medical branch that focuses all the scientific knowledge of medicine and biology to solve the problems posed by law. Throughout a judicial process, for example, forensic doctors play a fundamental role, as they help courts and judges to determine the cause of each injury noted in the victims, for which they must examine the bodies with a series of techniques of his profession.
Suppose a man appears dead inside his home and the first hypothesis is that it was a murder, since the body has a hole in the forehead. Crime experts come to the place and begin to develop their work: they look for fingerprints, analyze stains on the ground, collect different objects, etc. Thanks to the work of the specialists, it is determined that the man was shot dead by a 9-millimeter pistol, which he received in his dining room. The murderer, who left his prints on a table, entered through the main door and then escaped through a window. With this information provided by criminalists, the authorities can move forward in the search for guilty .