Deixis , which can also be indicated as deixes , is a term that comes from the Greek language and is used in the linguistics . Deixis is the indication that is concretized through components (called deictic ) that refer to a subject, a thing, a time or a place.
Deixis, therefore, is linked to those terms that are used to indicate different elements, which may have a presence elsewhere in a message or appear in the memory. "These", "there", "my own" and "me" They are some elements that are part of the deixis.
For example: “I proposed to organize a new meeting for Franuer's partners, although I don't think they are interested”, “If you look for the red folder, it's there”, “What do you do with that notebook? It's mine!", "The truth is that I don't think that way".
As can be seen in these examples, deixis can only be interpreted properly if attention is paid to context of who pronounces the expression. Yes, in the middle of a face-to-face conversation with another person , this one tells us that the house keys are "Up there", we will know what you mean thanks to your gestural indication.
In a similar sense, the expression “Here there are always people in the morning” It will only make sense if we know where it is "here". If we just read the phrase without knowing anything about the context, "here" may refer to a hospital , a Bank , a square or any other place.
With respect to the time of speech in which the contextual tools necessary to understand the meaning of a deixis are provided, it is possible to speak of:
* anaphoric deixis: also simply called anaphora, it is an expression in which the word that gives meaning to deixis has already been mentioned, with which the context has already been given to the interlocutor to understand the message; for example: "His expressiveness and the control he has of his voice: that's what I like most about this singer", where the pronoun "it" does reference to the above terms;
* cataphoric deixis: opposite to the anaphora, the cataphoric deixis indicates a part of the discourse that has not yet been issued or enunciated, but that will appear later; for example: "That's what I like: that I always find the right words", where the pronoun "it" just makes sense at the end of the sentence.
According to the reference object, deixis can be classified into categories such as deixis of weather , deixis of place and others.
It is an expression that mentions a participant through a deictic element. In addition, you can meet the function to distinguish the person according to the social status, the type of relationship that exists between the speakers or the age of the interlocutor; This is seen when "you" is used instead of "you" or "you" as the second singular person.
In this case, the expression of deictic type serves to refer to the role which has a given participant, and can be used for all people, both singular and plural. Some personal deixis, including determinants and pronouns, are you, you, you, you, yours and yours.
Deixis of place
Through this kind of deixis it is possible to indicate the space in which a given participant is, also providing an idea of their distance from the interlocutor, although with very little precision; some examples are there, here and there.
It serves to mention a certain time, always taking the moment in which the message is issued as a reference point, as with the terms today, morning and Yesterday.