From Latin inquisition, inquisition is the action and effect of inquiring . East verb It refers to inquire, examine or carefully find out something . For example: "The commissioner proceeded to the inquisition of the suspects to try to determine who was to blame for the crime", "The inquisition lasted several hours, although the judge could not obtain conclusive data".
The notion of Inquisition (written in initial capital letter), however, is usually associated with the persecution of heresy who did the Catholic Church in ancient times Inquisition, therefore, means the set of institutions and practices that sought to end the witchcraft and with everything that is opposite to the religion Catholic
It should be noted that various religions have had their own Inquisition (Protestants, to name a case, acted against Catholics). The most common use of the concept, however, is linked to the Catholicism of the Middle Ages (the Medieval inquisition ) and the Spanish religious policy established in 1478 .
The Medieval inquisition was established by the pope Lucio III in 1184 . A bull ordered the bishops to take charge of eliminating heresy, being able to judge and condemn those who considered heretics.
The Spanish Inquisition , on the other hand, had the particularity of depending directly on the monarchy . It was implanted in all the Spanish kingdoms and in the American colonies.
The various practices of the Inquisition included torture , public humiliations and even the burning in a bonfire of the damned, who could even become scientists who contradicted, with their work, some biblical postulates.
Origins and progress of the Inquisition
It is correct to say that the inquisition grew gradually and adapted to the various events of the history European throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, so it is possible to distinguish the episcopal, pontifical and Spanish inquisition.
When the princes and kings of the northern tribes that had invaded the old Roman Empire were converted to Christendom, their attacks ended. The papacy, stronger than ever, began to strongly influence the various Christian kingdoms and defined what we still know today as Orthodoxy.
After that orthodoxy was established (with dogmas such as the Holy Trinity, the concept of Salvation and the virginity of Mary) it was not long before deviations occurred, and this resulted in the episcopal inquisition; The bishop of each diocese studied and checked each action to verify whether it was a crime against religion, and then ordered the corresponding punishment, which could be imposed sentences, fasting or compulsory church attendance, among other possibilities.
Pope Urban II spread in 1095 the need to make a crusade to recover the Holy Land, which at that time was in the hands of Islam; For this, he declared that volunteering would replace any type of penance and grant the absolute remission of sin. After this crusade, a marked stage of heresy began, and the Church ordered a series of inquisitions, which had different results. While sentences could be as bloody as burning in a pyre to death, the pontifical inquisition He also forgave in exchange for money or certain favors to those who enjoyed an important social position.
The spanish inquisition It was an institution founded by the Catholic Monarchs in 1478 with the purpose of preserving Catholic orthodoxy in their territories. It was subject to the orders of the monarchy and lasted more than three centuries, until it was finally abolished in 1834, at which time Elizabeth II reigned.