The bees are insects which measure about fifteen millimeters long and form colonies composed of a single fertilized female (Queen), several sterile females (workers) and a large number of males (drones). Usually, these tiny creatures live in the hollows of trees or in the hives developed by the human being.
The bees, producers so much of wax like honey , constitute the set Anthophil , from the family known as Apoidea . There are, according to experts, about 20 thousand species of bees identified, which are located on all continents, except for the Antarctica, and feed on pollen and nectar .
They have character pollinator , since they are responsible for moving the pollen from the organ masculine of the flowers (known as the anther) to the female organ (that is, the stigma), which allows the fusion of the male gamete with the female of the ovum to be completed. It should be noted that the first pollinators of flowers were not bees, although over the years they have become the most efficient, but beetles and flies.
Bees are raised by humans to get honey, a sweet substance that they produce from the nectar they collect from flowers, from plant fluids or from the excretions of others insects. Bees capture these elements, mix them with an enzyme present in their saliva called invertase and keep them inside the honeycombs. There they reach maturity and are transformed into honey, whose extraction is done through the technique known as beekeeping .
The reproduction of these animals takes place through eggs, which are deposited in compartments called alveoli. From the eggs that are fertilized, female bees will be born that will later become workers; from those who are not fertilized the males arise. The larvae that will become the hive queens, on the other hand, are fed royal jelly; the rest ingest porridge made with pollen and honey.
Workers, drones and queens
The workers live about 45 days and are responsible for carrying out all the tasks they do to the organization of the hive. According to the time of life, their responsibilities change. In the first four days, your job is to clean the hive and the alveoli. Then, until day 11, your job is to be a nurse and feed the real larvae. The next three days you should store the pollen and the nectar and ventilate and keep the humidity and temperature in the hive by flapping its wings. Then, until day 17, as their wax-producing glands have already developed, their job is to build the honeycombs. From day 18 to 21, he is a sentry and must take care of the hive entrance. The rest of the days is responsible for collecting pollen and nectar, and bringing food to the rest of the colony.
The drones are not more than 100 (against 70,000 that can become the workers), they are round, fat and hairy. They are not able to feed themselves, so the workers are responsible for feeding them; they also lack stinger so they don't even serve to protect the hive. His only job is to fertilize the queen, and some don't even get it. In addition, once they have done so, the queen guts them; those who manage to get out of the hive alive are hopelessly lost. If they try to return, they are thrown out by the guardians since they are considered useless mouths that feed.
Per litter, there are several larvae that could become queens; However, only one will succeed. The first real bee that is born has the mission of killing the rest; In other words, eliminate the competition. In the event that two queen bees are born at the same time, a fight to the death will begin. At six days, the one that has emerged victorious will undertake a single bridal flight, in which it will be fertilized for about ten drones and then return to the hive. From that moment, his task will be to lay eggs throughout his life, which lasts between 4 and 5 years. It should be noted that the queen is the only bee that has reproductive capacity. In addition, it is responsible for segregating a chemical substance called pheromone, which, when licked by the rest of the bees, transmits the necessary information to know how to organize the job of the hive.