It is known as porfiriato to the regime who headed Porfirio Diaz in Mexico between 1876 and 1911 . His mandate began after the military triumph that overthrew Lerdo de Tejada . This president had been reelected through certain pressures, but Diaz launched the so-called Tuxtepec Plan and managed to overthrow it.
When Lerdo de Tejada was reelected president, Porfirio Díaz began a rebellion military against him, taking advantage of his renown and his prestige in the political and military fields of his country, thanks to his training throughout the Reformation war (from 1857 to 1861, it was a confrontation between liberals and Mexican conservatives who also met with the name of the Three Years War) and the French intervention (a conflict between France and Mexico between 1862 and 1867 as a result of the latter's refusal to pay the foreign debt).
In the more than three decades in the power , Diaz promoted various measures and reforms that modified the structure of Mexico . During the Porfiriato, foreign investments in the country increased, which allowed the growth of agriculture, mining and road infrastructure. Parallel to projects driven by foreign capital, Diaz It promoted local industry. The porfiriato also founded the Naval Military School , promoted the merchant marine and installed lighthouses and ports.
On a political level, Diaz He worked to achieve internal stability and achieve peace. his government he strove to get recognition from other nations, achieving it in 1878 with the U.S , for example. His search for internal pacification also included various changes in the army.
Mexican culture, under the Porfiriato, developed remarkably. The literature It was one of the fastest growing areas, based on the popularity obtained by authors such as Luis G. Urbina , Manuel Payno and others.
It is important to highlight that, beyond the progress made by the Porfiriato, the counterpart was an increase in inequality between different social classes and even between ethnicities , since indigenous peoples were used as cheap labor. To be more precise, Díaz ordered the creation of aboriginal exploitation zones (in Yucatan and National Valley, for example), and the treatment they received was practically slave.
The free press was also negatively affected by the mandate of Porfirio Díaz; some of the measures that the Porfiriato took to avoid that the news touched subjects that were not of their convenience were torture, bribery and disappearances , three characteristic elements of every unfortunate period of repression .
In addition to abusive treatment against indigenous people and repression of journalism, the Porfiriato brought with it another series of unfair and invasive measures that the Government always justified through Positivism , a doctrine that proposed order and progress. In this way, the volume of repression that Porfirio Díaz exerted on those individuals who requested a better quality of life should be forgiven since thanks to the order, which consisted of silencing the protesters, gave way to progress, the economic growth that was appreciated during this era.
The Porfiriato returned to the clergy most of the power that had been taken from him with the Three Years War and the Reform laws. For example, the tithes they became absolutely regular again, which affected the dispossessed sectors, both in the city and in rural areas. In the countryside, the clergy collected a high percentage of seeds from indigenous and smallholders, and later sold them for less money than they requested.